Worldwide there are approximately 3,000 merchant ports and the work of the Harbour Master can vary widely from country to country and from port to port even within the same country.
Harbour Masters may be recognised as the competent authority in the enforcement of port maritime and nautical legislation and therefore may have legal powers. Powers that they exercise in the enforcement of laws or port bylaws may include powers of inspection and detention. Harbour Masters should be fully aware of the extent of their powers and under which legislation they apply.
Harbour Masters may have powers to detain a vessel and will be consulted when a vessel detention is considered.
Some countries may give port state control duties to Harbour Masters.
When a ship enters a port, it must declare to the customs organisation, at least 24 hours before arrival, the cargo (cargo manifest), the stores on board and the belongings of the crew. Similarly, the passenger and crew list has to be sent to the immigration office before arrival. This is regulated by the IMO Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic (IMO FAL convention). During the stay in port, a ship can take on stores, discharge waste, change crew and disembark or embark passengers. All these operations have to be declared to the customs and the immigration authorities, both of which will need to give clearance before the ship departs.
The IMO’s International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code governs the carriage of dangerous goods by ships. The handling of dangerous goods on port premises is governed by national regulations. The handling of dangerous goods is part of the day-to-day business of ports and depending on local arrangements may be the Harbour Master's responsibility. While some ports or terminals are specialised in handling dangerous goods in bulk, the majority of ports and terminals may handle dangerous goods in smaller packaged quantities.
The safe stowage of dangerous goods on board ships as well as on terminal premises has to be controlled. Risk assessments have to be conducted and proper response strategies have to be developed in co-operation with, for instance, the fire brigade and handling terminals.
In the past, port security was concerned with deterring theft, the passage of illegal immigrants and countering smuggling and contraband. Some smaller ports had no security measures of any significance. Other, larger ports, had their own security personnel.
In other countries, ports were considered military installations and security was an integral part of their management.
This changed in the light of the 9/11 attacks in the USA in 2001. The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) was agreed in 2002, came into force in 2004, and is a comprehensive set of measures to enhance the security of ships and port facilities based on risk management that determines what security measures are appropriate.
The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) is intended to provide improved protection from terrorist attacks for all port facilities receiving seagoing ships larger than 500 Gross Ton on international routes.
The ISPS Code, the 2012 Guide and other IMO publications are available for purchase at IMO's Catalogue & Book Code List.
In many ports the Harbour Master is also the Port Security Officer (PSO) and members of the marine team may be Port Facility Security Officers (PFSOs) and have obligations under the ISPS Code. Many ports have facilities within their area of jurisdiction and these facilities will have their own Security Plans. Irrespective of whether the Harbour Master is the port security officer or not, he or she will need to be fully aware of the requirements of the ISPS code as it applies to their port and will be involved in developing, implementing and monitoring Port Security Exercises and audits from time to time.
The Antwerp Port Authority has introduced a game with a difference, an on-line tool that seeks to create security awareness in a port as port users learn how they can make their own individual contribution towards a more safe and secure port in an entertaining way. The on-line port security game will make port users aware of their responsibility to report suspicious situations, take the correct actions and inform the right people. You can play the game on the website of the Port of Antwerp. It is also available for download on the iTunes App store for free.
Ship repair activity at Gibraltar’s Gibdock continued to be rock solid, despite uncertainties through the first three quarters of 2020 (to end September) relating to Covid-19 and Brexit. Occupancy levels remained high, contracts continued to be agreed and scheduled dry dockings are already booked into 2021, the Gibraltar-based yard reported in mid-October.
In the words of Richard Beards, Gibdock’s Managing Director: ‘The outlook is set fair.’ He went on to identify potentially greater revenue streams in LNG-related projects and renewables business for the months ahead. Beards said that Gibdock’s location at the gateway to the Mediterranean remains a key advantage but added that the repeat business included in forward bookings: ‘Shows that customers continue to put reliability, quality of work and on-time redelivery at the top of their priority lists.
‘In 2020, being part of a tight-knit business community where fast communications enable rapid response times and the immediate implementation of any changes to health or travel regulations has also proved advantageous. We are in constant dialogue with the Port Authority, and we have frequent contact with Gibraltar Civil Contingencies, the Director of Public Health, local agents, subcontractors, hotels and transport providers.’
Beards pointed out that close ties with the local ship agency network mean that Gibraltar is well-established as a safe and efficient location for crew changes.
The International Harbour Masters' Association (IHMA) is delighted to announce that its new President is Captain Yoss Leclerc of the Port of Quebec. He succeeds Captain Allan Gray, President and CEO, Halifax Port Authority, Canada.
Captain Leclerc was elected on 8 October at the conclusion of the IHMA Ordinary General Meeting held remotely for the first time due to COVID-19 restrictions.
The OGM was contributed to online by delegates from 13 countries.
In a statement to members Captain Leclerc pledged to help the Association meet the challenges facing Harbour Masters to ensure the sustainability of ports in the future.
"I like to quote the Japanese writer Ryunosuke Satoro who said, "Individually we are one drop, together we are an ocean".
I lived this philosophy at sea when you knew that it was necessary to work together in order to face any and all challenges and even more, to fight adversity.
My story continues when I came ashore and joined many different and amazing teams from Canadian Ports who were on the ground 24/7 to ensure safe, secure and fluid operations.
Harbour Masters are the embodiment of dedication, collaboration and teamwork. They are the magicians that make everything seem seamless, smooth and easy to the neophyte and even often to old-timers. I have so often heard the following comment after a port visit, "there's nothing happening here!" and I always respond: "because magic is going on behind the scenes where a dedicated and painstaking Port team looks after every aspect ensuring the show is going".
There are many challenges ahead of us, including environment (climate change, air emissions, ballast water, etc.), technology (digitalization, automation, etc.) and health (pandemics) that we will need to grasp and tackle together in order to ensure our ports' sustainability.
At the international level, IHMA has worked very hard to acquire its standing and ability to influence decisions regarding many aspects that have considerable impact on our operations and we will, with your help, continue to consolidate our position.
As a father of two wonderful daughters involved in the maritime field, I am glad to see the interest of women in "Harbour Mastering" and will continue to support the movement within my capacity.
I am very honoured and humbled to take the helm of this prestigious organization and will endeavour to sail the ship with the collaboration and support of you all to our next port of call, the 2022 Congress in Port Klang."
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