Worldwide there are approximately 3,000 merchant ports and the work of the Harbour Master can vary widely from country to country and from port to port even within the same country.
On 30 January, the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade released a statement confirming that the People’s Republic of China was offering force majeure certificates to local companies unable to fulfil their international contractual obligations due to the coronavirus outbreak. Relevant directives and certificates do not, for the time being, apply to Hong Kong law contracts where the counterparty is a non-Chinese entity.
The widening quarantine restrictions in China, together with airlines suspending and reducing flights to and from China and the closure of ports in Hubei province indicate disruption to import and export of crude, iron ore, soybean and steel, to name but a few. Given the importance of China, in addition to the human cost of novel coronavirus, the financial impact and disruption to global trade look set to continue.
Where parties are trading with Chinese entities, it appears that the Chinese state is endeavouring to facilitate the exercise of force majeure clauses in international sale contracts for local companies. The validity of claiming force majeure will be subject to the scope of the specific contractual provisions and evidence that alternative means of contractual performance were not available. In a statement issued by Hill Dickinson LLP on 5 February it was emphasised that the International Commercial Law Firm highlights the main issues which arise below.
In English law, force majeure is a contractual term that cannot be implied. It arises solely on the basis of provisions which are included in a contract and as such, there is no standard clause and force majeure provisions vary from contract to contract. The effect is usually to relieve a party from performance of their obligations when one of a defined number of events occur.
Whether the delay and disruption resulting from the novel coronavirus is a force majeure event will depend on the particular wording of a contract, and not the parties’ intentions. In circumstances where there is no specific reference to disease, epidemic or quarantine, the same may be caught by ‘Acts of God’, ‘Acts of Government’ or by general wording such as ‘other circumstance beyond the parties’ control’.
If a force majeure event can be identified, then it must be the only effective cause of default.
In Classic Maritime Inc v Limbungan Makmur SDN BHD  EWCA Civ 1102, the charterers argued that they should be relieved of their obligations to provide cargoes for shipment following a dam collapse. The Court of Appeal held that the clause was not a true force majeure clause, but was instead an exception clause and further that the charterers would not have been able to perform in any event. As such, a party may not be excused performance of its obligations under the contract despite the occurrence of an unexpected and extraordinary event, when it would not have been able to perform its obligations even in the absence of such an event.
The effect of a force majeure clause may vary from contract to contract. Some operate to suspend obligations during the period of the applicable event (for example the GAFTA ‘prevention of shipment clause’), some give rise to a right to terminate and some may relieve the non-performing party of liability. Almost all clauses require that notice be given of the force majeure event.
A force majeure clause usually requires the defaulting party to show that it used its reasonable endeavours to prevent, or at least mitigate, the effects of the force majeure.
In Channel Island Ferries Ltd v Sealink UK Ltd  1 Lloyd’s Rep 323, the Court of Appeal held that any clause which included language referring to events “beyond the control of the relevant party” could only be relied upon if all reasonable steps had been taken by aid party to mitigate its results.
If force majeure does not apply, then the doctrine of frustration may provide relief in circumstances where the issue goes to the root of the contract and renders it impossible to perform or the performance or essentially different to the contract envisaged. Whether frustration may apply is both fact and contract sensitive.
As disruption in China, a key market for import and export, is set to continue, traders and shippers alike should:
The information here was provided by Beth Bradley, Partner (London), Damien Laracy, Partner (Hong Kong) and John Agapitos, Paralegal, Hill Dickinson LLP.
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One of Maritime Minister Nusrat Ghani’s last duties before leaving office on 13 February was to make a written statement on Light Dues, the means of financing the marine aids to navigation services of the United Kingdom.
In the document she said: ‘A strong and growing maritime industry is vital to the economy of the United Kingdom and it is critical that we treasure and protect this vital artery if we are to remain a world-leading maritime centre.
‘The work of the General Lighthouse Authorities2, which provide and maintain marine aids to navigation and respond to new wrecks and navigation dangers in some of the busiest waters in the world, is crucial to underpinning that vision whilst maintaining our vigorous safety record and continuously improving standards of safety.
‘Reductions in the three General Lighthouse Authorities’ running costs have enabled the UK to reduce light dues on four occasions since 2014. For 2020 to 2021 I intend to freeze light dues rates at 37½ pence per net registered tonne. This will mean that light dues will have fallen by 30% in real terms since 2010.
‘Light dues rates will continue to be reviewed on an annual basis to ensure that the General Lighthouse Authorities are challenged to provide an effective and efficient service which offers value for money to light dues payers.’
New hubs of business and enterprise will be opened across the UK creating thousands of jobs, regenerating communities and turbocharging Britain’s post-Brexit growth, the Government announced on 10 February.
Up to ten new innovative Freeports will be opened across the UK as the Government seeks to level up the country and seize on the opportunities leaving the EU has presented. This was the style of a news item delivered on behalf of HM Treasury.
A consultation has been launched setting out the Government’s vision for Freeports, with the aim of announcing the location of the new zones at the end of this year so they can be open for business in 2021.
It is understood that once the ten-week consultation is completed, the Government will invite sea, air and rail ports to bid for Freeport status on a competitive basis.
Chief Secretary to the Treasury, Rishi Sunak, said: ‘Freeports will unleash the potential in our proud historic ports, boosting and regenerating communities across the UK as we level up. They will attract new businesses, spreading jobs, investment and opportunity to towns and cities up and down the country.
‘This is all part of our mission as an open, outward-looking country, championing global free trade with vibrant Freeports that work for all of the UK.’